Archive for December, 2014

Dec 31

The topic of bystander apathy came to public attention after the horrible murder of Catherine Genovese. Thirty-eight people witnessed portions of the attack, yet it was half an hour before anybody called the police. Darley and Latanй did a series of studies on the bystander apathy phenomenon. They found a diffusion of responsibility effect. When larger numbers of people witnessed a crisis, individuals were less likely to volunteer to help. Personal contact greatly increased the likelihood that people would help a person in distress.

Aggression has been studied for many decades. Contrary to old theories, frustration does not seem to be the main cause of aggression. Instead, people are aggressive when they see aggressive behavior modeled or think it is expected of them. People who witness violence in their home while growing up are far more likely to commit acts of violence later in their own relationships. Males are more prone to violent aggression than females, and testosterone (the male hormone) increases aggression. Zimbardo showed, in his famous prison study, that role-playing could elicit aggressive behavior in ordinary male volunteers.

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Dec 18

If, however, the car blew up because of your negligence (for example, because you left the gas cap off) you might be sued. If the car blew up because you gave some people gasoline and told them to wash tar off your fender with it, and somebody died in the resulting explosion, you could be charged with manslaughter: an irresponsible action that results in somebody’s death. If you planned it and did it on purpose, you could be buy generic viagra online charged with murder. This is the issue of culpability or moral responsibility. Culpability implies agency (the ability to act), responsibility (the ability to determine what is appropriate and reasonable) and free will (the ability to decide what to do), all of which are inferred psychological states.

Manslaughter itself is commonly broken down into two categories: voluntary manslaughter involves intent but not a preplanning process (malice aforethought) so it is a category used for killings done “in the heat of the moment,” rather than planned out ahead of time. Involuntary manslaughter lacks intent but shows irresponsibility; it is used for deaths caused by negligence, drunkenness, or wanton disregard of safety. Voluntary buy generic viagra online manslaughter involves less culpability than murder, in the eyes of the law, and is likely to result in a shorter sentence. In short, a person’s mental state, degree of knowledge, planning, and responsibility, are extremely relevant to criminal law.

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Dec 18

English common law is the starting point of much American law. English common law holds that a defendant cannot be tried unless that person is present and able to participate in the defense. In other words, people cannot be tried “in absentia” (in their own absence). This doctrine buy viagra online has been extended to people who are mentally “not there.” They cannot be tried until they regain enough of their senses or intellect to help represent themselves at a trial. This is the issue known as competency to stand trial.

The issue of competence goes beyond competency to stand trial. Competence includes the ability to make decisions about your own life. Is a teenager competent to decide where to live? Normally you cannot move out of your home against your parents’ wishes before you are 18. But, in a specific case, a psychologist buy viagra online might argue that your home situation was intolerable and your judgment was good, and the court might allow you to leave.

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Dec 18

Psychology and the Law is a frontier area in two ways. It is an area of intense recent activity, and it is an interdisciplinary area, an area of overlap between psychology and other professions. Here are some specific ways that psychologists become involved in the legal system.

Forensic psychology is literally court-related psychology, but the term is usually applied to police work such as criminal investigation. Relatively suddenly, in the late 1990s, many students became interested in forensic psychology. Perhaps it was the publication of FBI “profiler” John Douglas’s best-selling book, or the viagra brand appearance of several TV programs starring profilers who develop uncanny intuitions about the personal characteristics of uncaught murderers.

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Dec 18

Each phase of life has its special stressors (stimuli which cause stress). In the college population, typical stressors are cramming for tests, worrying about friends or love relationships, or trying to work at a job while going to school. Pre-college adolescents rate events such as “divorce of parents” or “wrecking the family car” most stressful.

A common stressor for people of all ages is moving to a new location. Clinical psychologist Ronald Raymond, who worked for a relocation counseling firm, found evidence for great stress associated with moves.

Of 2,000 people studied, only 30% did it without “anguish.” Fear and a sense of isolation take over upon arrival at a new town, and this can paralyze people right when they should be making new friends. Fearing rejection, levitra online many rationalize that the new community is unfriendly (Brooks, 1983)

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Dec 17

Sex therapists know that relationship problems are usually at the root of sexual problems. Often they begin by having a couple abstain from sex and get to know each other again, while working on improved communication and problem-solving in counseling.

The next step is to encourage physical contact, still of the non-sexual variety. Often massage is used as a way of expressing tenderness. Then the couple may be encouraged to start “dating” again. This involves planning a romantic evening together ahead of time, setting the mood properly in whatever way a couple prefers. This generates cues or signals which will come to be associated with sexual response.

If one thing leads to another, and the outcome is good, then a positive type of classical conditioning is established. The romantic cues (a romantic dinner, a massage, favorite music, whatever) start to generate a biological warm-up effect. The body quickly learns, on unconscious as well as conscious levels, which cues predict a powerful, positive emotional experience, and the romance in a marriage is rekindled.

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Dec 17

The patient remembers walking down the stairway of his residence… and the next thing he knew he was on the eighth floor of a hospital about 5 miles from his home. He must have walked the entire distance as he had no money with him. By coincidence, an acquaintance saw him there and asked him whom he was visiting. The patient suddenly emerged from his fugue, felt very embarrassed, made up some trivial excuse for being there, and walked back home. The father had been a patient in this hospital and on that floor at the time of his death.

More rare than sleepwalking is the dissociative fugue state—a temporary episode of automatic action followed by complete amnesia for the time of the activity. It is often associated with epilepsy and may be set off by seizure activity. Like seizures themselves, fugue states cialis 10mg are triggered by stress.

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Dec 12

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Конечно, мебель из натурального дерева гораздо качественнее, экологичнее и омфортнее. В современном мебельном производстве чаще всего используют дуб, сосну, орех, бук, вишню, березу. Главная ценность пород — в их прочности. Но при всех видимых преимуществах деревянная корпусная мебель имеет ряд недостатков: она боится воды и огня, ее легко повредить механически, и вдобавок она требует постоянного ухода. Поэтому специалисты советуют не спешить с выводами и не относиться к мебели из ДСП или МДФ как ко второсортной продукции. Если мебель имеет сертификат качества (соответствия), она безопасна для здоровья. Кстати, большинство известных итальянских фабрик делают дорогую мебель высокого класса (high class) именно из этих материалов.

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Dec 12

Практически в любом мебельном салоне можно заказать производство корпусной мебели любых форм и размеров, однако, зачастую там можно найти неплохие готовые варианты, посему, прежде чем оформить заказ, посетите несколько магазинов, а уж если там ничего не присмотрите, можете воспользоваться такой услугой, как производство мебели на заказ.

Одним из самых недорогих и практичных вариантов мебели на сегодняшний день является деревянная мебель, корпусная мебель мебель из дсп и мдф. Мебель из чистого дерева стоит гораздо дороже, а наиболее распространенным материалом при производстве более дешевой мебели является ДСП, либо его комбинирование с МДФ.


Dec 11

Было время, когда признаком благосостояния считалось наличие в доме паркета. Такое напольное покрытие признано очень прочным, долговечным и, что немаловажно, безумно красивым напольным покрытием. Однако, удовольствие это не из дешевых, поэтому однажды шведская фирма по производству напольных покрытий придумала и запатентовала более экономичный материал, который используется сегодня с большим удовольствием. И имя этому материалу – ламинат.

За четверть века с момента его изобретения, ламинат менялся и совершенствовался. Сейчас он представляет собой такой материал, который по характеристикам превосходит даже деревянные покрытия. У него высокий показатель износостойкости, его можно мыть не только водой, но даже и ацетоном, не выцветает на солнце и устойчив к ультрафиолетовым лучам, выдерживает перепады температур.

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Ламинированная панель представляет собой многослойный материал, число которых составляет не менее четырех. Основой для прочности ламината служит средний слой, который обычно изготавливают из древесноволокнистого материала. И чем выше показатель прочности этой части ламинированной доски, тем прочнее будет ламинат. Сверху этого слоя приклеиваются высококачественные изображения имитируемых материалов (дерево, камень, плитка и другие). Для того, чтобы улучшить износостойкость поверхности и защитить от выцветания, производители пропитывают эту часть смолой. А при добавлении диоксида алюминия в смолу, ламинат увеличивает прочность в несколько раз.